Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation.
Genetically Engineered Crops builds on previous related Academies reports published between 1987 and 2010 by undertaking a retrospective examination of the purported positive and adverse effects of GE crops and to anticipate what emerging genetic-engineering technologies hold for the future. This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.
Table of Contents
|1 The Study of Genetically Engineered Crops by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine||29-46|
|2 The Framework of the Report||47-64|
|3 Genetically Engineered Crops Through 2015||65-96|
|4 Agronomic and Environmental Effects of Genetically Engineered Crops||97-170|
|5 Human Health Effects of Genetically Engineered Crops||171-254|
|6 Social and Economic Effects of Genetically Engineered Crops||255-352|
|7 Future Genetic-Engineering Technologies||353-404|
|8 Future Genetically Engineered Crops||405-454|
|9 Regulation of Current and Future Genetically Engineered Crops||455-522|
|Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members||523-534|
|Appendix B: Revisions to the Statement of Task||535-536|
|Appendix C: Agendas of Information-Gathering Sessions||537-548|
|Appendix D: Agenda for Workshop on Comparing the Environmental Effects of Pest Management Practices Across Cropping Systems||549-552|
|Appendix E: Invited Speakers Unavailable to Present to the Committee||553-554|
|Appendix F: Summarized Comments Received from Members of the Public||555-576|
|Appendix G: Glossary||577-584|
The committee held a webinar on Wednesday, May 13, 2015 to gather information from invited speakers:
The committee held a Public Webinar on Thursday, May 7, 2015, to gather information about RNAi technology. RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process that cells use to turn down, or silence, the activity of specific genes.
The committee held a webinar on Wednesday, May 6, 2015 to gather information from invited speakers:
The committee held a webinar on Thursday, April 30, 2015 to gather information from invited speakers:
The committee held a webinar on Tuesday, April 21, 2015 to gather information from invited speakers:
The committee held a webinar on Monday, April 6, 2015, to gather information on the microbiome. Jonathan Eisen, University of California, Davis, provided an introduction to the microbiome, discussed lateral gene transfer from microbes to other organisms, and examined whether there is evidence that the herbicide glyphosate affects the human microbiome.
The committee held a webinar on Friday, March 27, 2015 to gather information from invited speakers. The speakers’ presentations addressed the state of the science regarding GE traits in development for tree species and governance issues related to the commercialization of GE trees.
On Thursday, March 19, the committee held a webinar in which invited speakers addressed adoption trends of GE crops in the United States, GE research and development investments in the public and private sectors, and public policy aspects of genetic engineering in agriculture. The webinar featured invited speakers:
Revisiting the 2004 NRC Report, Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects. The committee held a webinar on Thursday, February 26, 2015 to gather information from two members of the 2004 report committee:
The committee held a webinar on Wednesday February 4, 2015 to gather information from invited speakers:
The committee held a webinar on Tuesday, January 27, 2015, to gather information from invited speakers.
The committee held a webinar on Thursday, November 6, 2014, to gather information from invited speakers on genetically engineered traits for disease resistance. The webinar featured:
The committee held a webinar on Wednesday, October 22, 2014, to gather information from invited speakers. The webinar featured:
The committee held a webinar on Wednesday, October 8, 2014, to gather information from invited speakers. The webinar featured:
The committee held a webinar on Wednesday, October 1, 2014, to gather information from invited speakers. The webinar featured:
The report released May 17, 2016. Presentation by Committee Chair Fred Gould, North Carolina State University.
Q&A with Committee Chair Fred Gould and committee members, Richard Amasino (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Dominique Brossard (University of Wisconsin-Madison) and Michael Rodemeyer.
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