Medium- and heavy-duty trucks, motor coaches, and transit buses - collectively, "medium- and heavy-duty vehicles", or MHDVs - are used in every sector of the economy. The fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of MHDVs have become a focus of legislative and regulatory action in the past few years. This study is a follow-on to the National Research Council's 2010 report, Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium-and Heavy-Duty Vehicles. That report provided a series of findings and recommendations on the development of regulations for reducing fuel consumption of MHDVs.
On September 15, 2011, NHTSA and EPA finalized joint Phase I rules to establish a comprehensive Heavy-Duty National Program to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption for on-road medium- and heavy-duty vehicles. As NHTSA and EPA began working on a second round of standards, the National Academies issued another report, Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report, providing recommendations for the Phase II standards. This third and final report focuses on a possible third phase of regulations to be promulgated by these agencies in the next decade.
Table of Contents
|2 Setting the Stage: Regulatory Horizons, Challenges, and Influences||18-49|
|3 Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement||50-68|
|4 Powertrain Technologies||69-137|
|5 Technologies for Reducing the Power Demand of MHDVs||138-187|
|6 Projected Benefits of Technologies on Fuel Consumption||188-218|
|7 Hybrid and Electric Powertrain Technologies||219-260|
|8 Battery Technology for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Hybrid and Electric Vehicles||261-292|
|9 Freight Operational Efficiency||293-304|
|10 Intelligent Transportation Systems and Automation||305-311|
|11 Manufacturing Considerations||312-326|
|12 Costs and Benefits||327-363|
|13 Alternative and Complementary Regulatory Approaches||364-383|
|Appendix A: Committee Biographies||384-389|
|Appendix B: Disclosure of Conflict(s) of Interest||390-390|
|Appendix C: Committee Activities||391-396|
|Appendix D: Summary of Analysis of Engine and Vehicle Combinations||397-399|
|Appendix E: Description of Drive Cycles Used for Compliance||400-405|
|Appendix F: Summary of Committee's First Report: Reducing the Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Phase Two: First Report||406-412|
|Appendix G: Acronyms and Abbreviations||413-419|
|Appendix H: Glossary||420-420|
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